From: Thomas Hockey et al. (eds.). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, Springer Reference. New York: Springer, 2007, p. 609

Courtesy of

Kamāl al‐Dīn al‐Turkmānī: Kamāl al‐Dīn Muammad ibn Amad ibn ʿUthmān ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Muṣṭafā al‐Māridīnī al‐Turkmānī al‐anafī

İhsan Fazlıoğlu

BornCairo, (Egypt), 1314

Diedprobably Gülistan (Guliston, Uzbekistan), after 1354

Kamāl al‐Dīn al‐Turkmānī was one of several writers who wrote a commentary to Jaghmīnī's al‐Mulakhkhaʿilm al‐hayʾa al‐basīa. Most of his other writings are in the fields of history and fiqh and uūl (Islamic law and jurisprudence). There is much confusion regarding his education, life, and date and place of death. However, we do know that Kamāl al‐Dīn al‐Turkmānī was born and spent some time in Cairo (where he undoubtedly benefited from the scientific environment), and that he also lived much of his life in Mardin (now in southeastern Turkey). He came from a family that was actively engaged in scientific work; most likely he was first educated by his father Amad, known as Ibn al‐Turkmānī, who was an astronomer who had written a commentary on Kharaqī's astronomical treatise al‐Tabira fī ʿilm al‐hayʾa.

Kamāl al‐Dīn al‐Turkmānī's Commentary to the Mulakhkha was written in September 1354 in Gülistan/Saray, the capital city of the Golden Horde State, and was offered to Jānī Beg Khan (reigned: 1349–1352); the work is a significant indication of how widespread and established the Islamic scientific heritage had come to be. The Commentary was used as a textbook for studying ʿilm al‐hayʾa (theoretical astronomy) throughout the Ottoman Empire and Persia for many years. At least ten copies of the work can be found today in Turkey's manuscript libraries (the oldest copy being Atıf Efendi Library MS 1707/2, 11b–223a). In addition, Fasīh al‐Dīn Muammad al‐Kūhistānī (died: 1530), who was a student of ʿAlī al‐Qūshjī, wrote a supercommentary on Kamāl al‐Dīn al‐Turkmānī's Commentary. This represents an important indication of the continuous tradition of studying hayʾa within the Samarqand school of mathematicians and astronomers.

Selected References

Bağdadlı, İsmail Paşa (1955). Hadiyyat al‐ʿārifīn. Vol. 2, Istanbul: Milli Eg‐ition Baliaylign Yayinlare, p. 157.

Brockelmann, Carl (1937). Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. Suppl. 1, Leiden: E. J. Brill, p. 865.

Ibn Qulūbughā, al‐Qāsim ibn ʿAbd Allāh (1962). Tāj al‐tarājim. Baghdad, p. 44.

Kātib Čelebī (1943). Kashf al‐unūn ʿan asāmī al‐kutub wa‐ʾl‐funūn. Vol. 2, cols. 1749, 1819, 2018. Istanbul: Milli Eg‐ition Baliaylign Yayinlare.

Kaālah, ʿUmar Riā. Muʿjam al‐muʾallifīn. Vol. 1: 309; Vol. 8: 288. Beirut.

Rosenfeld, B. A. and Ekmeleddin Ihsanoğlu (2003). Mathematicians, Astronomers, and Other Scholars of Islamic Civilization and Their Works (7th–19th c.). Istanbul: IRCICA. p. 252.